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  • Glossary
| Last Updated:05/01/2012

GLOSSARY

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Authorization

The process of determining, by evaluating applicable access control information, whether a subject is allowed to have the specified types of access to a particular resource. Usually, authorization is in the context of authentication. Once a subject is authenticated, it may be authorized to perform different types of access.

Authentication

Authentication is the process of verifying that a potential partner in a conversation is capable of representing a person or organization.

Attribute

A distinct characteristic of an object. An object's attributes are said to describe the object. Objects' attributes are often specified in terms of their physical traits, such as size, shape, weight, and color, etc., for real-world objects. Objects in cyberspace might have attributes describing size, type of encoding, network address, etc.

Artifact

A piece of digital information. An artifact may be any size, and may be composed of other artifacts. Examples of artifacts: a message; a URI; an XML document; a PNG image; a bit stream.

Architecture

The software architecture of a program or computing system is the structure or structures of the system. This structure includes software components, the externally visible properties of those components, the relationships among them and the constraints on their use.

Aquatic

Living in water.

Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs)

These antimalarial drugs are relatively affordable and effective against multidrug-resistant strains of malaria-causing parasites. ACTs produce a rapid response and are tolerated by most patients.

Antibiotics

Drugs that kill disease-causing bacteria.1 One example of an antibiotic is amoxicillin, which prevents bacteria from multiplying and is commonly used for treating S. pneumoniae. Another antibiotic, cotrimoxazole, is often used to protect adults and children with HIV from opportunistic infections, including pneumonia.

Antenna

Sensory organ on the head for hearing and smell.

ANOVA

Acronym for "analysis of variance," a statistical tool for analyzing the variability in a process.

Alignment

Representation of a prediction of the amino acids in tertiary structures of homologues that overlay in three dimensions. Alignments held by SMART are mostly based on published observations (see domain annotations for details), but are updated and edited manually. (SMART)

Algorithm

A fixed procedure embodied in a computer program. (NCBI)

Adult

The fully developed mature form.

Adolescents

Males and females, aged 10-19 years.

Access

To interact with a system entity in order to manipulate, use, gain knowledge of, and/or obtain a representation of some or all of a system entity's resources.

Abdomen

Part of the body that contains the digestive and reproductive organs.